Last week, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco overturned a lower court ruling that found free-to-play online video games don’t constitute gambling under Washington state law.
Specifically, the appeals court ruled in favor of the plaintiff, who had spent $1,000 on “coins” on a virtual casino slot game to extend play. Players are provided a number of free coins daily but can purchase additional coins to extend play within a 24-hour period.
That payment option, according to the appeals court, held “intrinsic value,” and constituted gambling under state law.
To Michael Pachter, media analyst at Wedbush Securities in Los Angeles, the decision has ramifications for free-to-play online video games that allow players additional turns for a fee.
Activision’s King Casino generated nearly $2 billion in revenue in 2017, including a $1 billion in the U.S. Most of the revenue coming from the purchase of “boosters” in games, which accelerate the solving of the particular game or extending play.
Zynga generated $850 million in revenue, with an estimated $400 million coming from the purchase of time-saving options.
“Should the Circuit Court’s decision be applied in other states, these companies may face a series of lawsuits,” Pachter wrote in an April 2 note.
The analyst expects the latest decision to be appealed by a “more rationale” court that does not render value on virtual video game pieces.
“However, until that happens, there is some risk that Activision and Zynga will see increased legal risk to their ongoing operations in Washington state,” Pachter wrote. “Should other states decide to cite the [lower court] decision as precedent, we may see an uptick in legal activity elsewhere.”